It is long settled that once the pleadings and the evidence of a party conclusively disclose a representative capacity and it is clear that the case was fought throughout in that capacity, the trial court can properly and justifiably enter judgment for and or against the party concerned in such representative capacity, even if an amendment to reflect that capacity had not been applied for and obtained. See Afolabi and others v. Adekunle and Another (1983) 2 SCNLR 141 or (1983) 14 NSCC 398 or (1983) 8 SC 98; Ayeni v. Sowemimo (1982) 5 S.C. 60, Dokubo v. Bob Manuel (1967) 1 All NLR 113 at 121, Mba Nta and Others v. Ede Anigbo and Another (1972) 5 S.C. 156 at 174 – 176. It would be otherwise if the case is not made out in a representative capacity. See Onwunalu Ndidi and Another v. Osademe (1971) 1 All NLR 14 at 16. This is because the law in such circumstance is that the court should do substantial justice and save multiplicity of suits by amending the capacity in which the suit is brought or defended so as to bring it in line with the pleadings and the evidence. Where, therefore, an action is brought in a representative capacity, failure to express that fact on the writ of summons does not ipso facto invalidate the proceedings and an appellate court may on its own motion amend the title to the proceedings in order to show clearly the capacity in which a party has sued or is sued provided the pleadings and the evidence conclusively show that the action is prosecuted or defended in a representative capacity. See too Iro Elera v. Inyima Ndukwe (1961) All NLR 564. Where no evidence of representation has been given, such a case cannot be one where an amendment can be made by the court to the writ of summons and the Statement of Claim or Defence for that by itself would not cure the lack of evidence.
— Iguh, JSC. Kyari v Alkali (2001) – SC.224/1993