Idudun v. Okumagba (1976) 9-10 S.C.277, (1976) 1 N. M. L. R. 200, as follows: (1) By traditional evidence; (2) By production of documents of title duly authenticated and executed! (3) By acts of ownership extending over a sufficient length of time numerous and positive enough to warrant the inference of true ownership; (4) By acts of long possession and enjoyment and (5) By proof of possession of connected or adjacent land in circumstances rendering it probable that the owner of such connected or adjacent land would, in addition, be the owner of the land in dispute. See also Mogaji and others v. Cadbury (Nigeria) Ltd. (1985) 2 NWLR (Pt.7) 393. Fasaro and Another v. Beyioku and others (1988) 2 NWLR (Pt.76) 263. Okonkwo v. Okolo (1988) 2 NWLR (Pt.79) 632. I think a party can use the above five ways to prove co-ownership by leading evidence to establish joint or common rights over the land.
Generally speaking, ownership connotes the totality of or the bundle of the rights of the owner over and above every other person on a thing. It connotes a complete and total right over a property. The owner of the property is not subject to the right of another person. Because he is the owner, he has the full and final right of alienation or disposition of the property. And he exercises this right of alienation and disposition without seeking the consent of another party because as a matter of law and fact there is no other party’s right over the property that is higher than that of his. He has the inalienable right to sell the property at any price, even at a give away price. He can even give it out gratis, that is for no consideration. The owner of a property can use it for any purpose; material, immaterial, substantial, non-substantial, valuable, invaluable, beneficial or even for a purpose which is detrimental to his personal or proprietary interest. In so far as the property is his and inheres in him nobody can say anything. He is the alpha and omega of the property. The property begins with him and also ends with him. Unless he transfers his ownership over the property to a third party, he remains the allodial owner.
— Tobi, JCA. Abraham v Olorunfunmi (1990) – CA/L/83/89