The Government of Nigeria is therefore an agent of the Federation of Nigeria as it exercises the executive powers of the Federation on behalf of the Federation or Federal Republic of Nigeria for its benefit and wellbeing. In AG Federation V AG Abia State(2001) LPELR-24862(SC) this court stated that the Federal Government of Nigeria represents all the constituent states of the federation and exercises the powers of the Federation as trustee for and on behalf of the Federation. This court restated in A-G Lagos State v. A-G Federation (2014) 9 NWLR (Pt. 1412) 217 at 280, that the Federal Republic of Nigeria (or the Federation) is the repository of the sovereignty of the people of Nigeria, whereas the Federal and State Governments in contradistinction are donees of the power and authority of the people. Being an agent of the Federation, the act of the President as head of Government of Nigeria is therefore the act of the Federation. It is an established principle of hallowed antiquity that quit facit per alium facit per se (one who acts by another acts himself).
— E.A. Agim, JSC. AG Kaduna & Ors. v. AG Federation & Ors. (2023) – SC/CV/162/2023